Jul 21 2011

Works Cited

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Offshore Wind Energy + History of Wind Energy
Anesa Owen

Kaldellis, John K. and Zafirakis, D. “The wind energy (r)evolution: A short review of a long history”. Elsevier. Renewable Energy 36 (2011): 1887-1901.

Musial, Walter and Ram, Bonnie. “Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers”. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2010).

Nersesian, Roy L. Energy for the 21st Century: A Comprehensive Guide to Conventional and Alternative Sources. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.; 2006. Print.

“Oldest offshore turbines still in flawless condition”. Vestas. (2011) Accessed 16 Jul 2011. <http://www.vestas.com/en/wind-power-plants/towards-20-years-in-offshore/oldest-offshore-turbines-still-in-flawless-condition.aspx>.

Ragheb, M. “Offshore Wind Farms Siting”. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2010). <http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/98-9/offshore/wind/wintr.htm>.

Sophie Jacobson and Nolan Kirkwood

Acher, John. “China became top wind power market in 2009.” Reuters, 29 March 2010. Web. 19 Jul 2011.

Ancona, Dan, and Jim McVeigh. “Wind Turbine – Materials and Manufacturing Fact Shee.” Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC, 29 Aug 2001. Web. 17 Jul 2011. <http://www.perihq.com/documents/WindTurbine-MaterialsandManufacturing_FactSheet.pdf>.

Barrow Offshore Wind. “Barrow Offshore Wind Farm construction.” BOWind. Barrow Offshore Wind Limited, 2008. Web. 17 Jul 2011. <http://www.bowind.co.uk/construction.shtml>.

Byrne, B.W., and G.T. Houlsby. “Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361.1813 (2003): 2909-2930. Web. 17 Jul 2011. <http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/361/1813/2909.full.pdf+html?sid=accaee6a-d67c-4676-90ae-83b0c35f73a0>.

Cape Wind Associates. “Project Construction.” Cape Wind: Energy for Life. Cape Wind Associates, LLC, 2011. Web. 17 Jul 2011. <http://www.capewind.org/article20.htm>.

“Construction.” Vestas.com. Vestas, n.d. 17 Jul 2011. <http://www.vestas.com/en/wind-power-plants/construction.aspx#/vestas-univers>.

Department of Energy. United States. Wind Energy Multiyear Program Plan For 2007–2012. 2007. Web. 17 Jul 2011. <http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/pdfs/40593.pdf>.

Gibbs, Rob. “U.S. Offshore Wind Policy Considerations.” PSEG Global LLC. NJ. Lecture. <http://www.rpi.edu/cfes/news-and-events/Wind%20Workshop/Public%20Policy%20to%20Support%20Off-Shore%20Wind%20Development.pdf>.

“Manufacturing.” Vestas.com. Vestas, n.d. Web. 17 Jul. 2011. <http://worldofwind.vestas.com/>.

Mineral Management Service. United States.Technology White Paper on Wind Energy Potential on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf. 2006. Web. 17 Jul 2011. <http://ocsenergy.anl.gov/documents/docs/OCS_EIS_WhitePaper_Wind.pdf>.

Musial, W., and S. Butterfield. “Future for Offshore Wind Energy in the United States.” EnergyOcean 2004. NREL. Palm Beach, Fl. 28 Jun 2004. Lecture. <http://connect.docuter.com/documents/7215651894adcc67e1cff81255982718.pdf>.

“Operations and Maintenance.” Vestas.com. Vestas, n.d 17 Jul 2011. <http://worldofwind.vestas.com/>.

Peel, Deborah, and Michael Gregory Lloyd. “Positive Planning for Wind-Turbines in an Urban Context.” Local Environment 12.4 (2007): 343-354. Web. 17 Jul 2011. <http://enviro.lclark.edu/resources/scotland/WindEnergy/PositivePlanning.pdf>.


“Siting.” Vestas.com. Vestas, n.d. Web. 17 Jul. 2011. <http://www.vestas.com/en/wind-power-plants/wind-project-planning/siting.aspx#/vestas-univers>.

Tegen, Suzanne. “Wind Turbine Manufacturers in the U.S.: Locations and Local Impact.” WINDPOWER 2010 Conference and Exhibition. NREL. Dallas, TX. 26 May 2010. Lecture. <http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/47913.pdf>.

“Vestas bolsters Colorado economy.” Vestas.com. Vestas, n.d. Web. 17 Jul. 2011. <http://www.vestas.com/en/media/news/news-display.aspx?PID=0&NewsID=2373&action=3>.

Wind Turbines. GE Energy, n.d. Web. 17 Jul. 2011. < http://www.ge-energy.com/products_and_services/products/wind_turbines/fourone_113.jsp >.

Wind Turbines. Siemens, n.d. Web. 17 Jul. 2011. <http://www.energy.siemens.com/mx/en/power-generation/renewables/wind-power/wind-turbines/#content=Technology>.

The Current State of Wind Energy in the United States and North Carolina
Matt Cook

Beaudry-Losique, Jacques et. al.  “A National Offshore Wind Strategy Creating an Offshore Wind Energy Industry in the United States.” <http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro /pdfs/national_offshore_wind_strategy.pdf>. USA. 18 Jul 2011.

“Electric Power Sector Price and Expenditure Estimates, 1970-2009, North Carolina.” <http://www.eia.gov/>. USA. 18 Jul 2011.

[DW] “Deepwater Wind : Projects.” Deepwater Wind : Projects. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 July 2012. <http://dwwind.com/projects>.

Figure 2 from:

“Block Island Wind Farm Renderings.” Deepwater Wind : Block Island Wind Farm. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 July 2012. <http://dwwind.com/block-island/?a=renderings>.

Figure 1 from:

Fisherman’s Energy. “Atlantic City Windfarm Presentation.” Chautauqua County Energy Conference & Expo. Web.http://www.fishermensenergy.com/CCIDA-Presentation/Fishermens-Energy-to-Chautauqua.pdf.

[FE] “Fishermen’s Energy – The Future of Energy in New Jersey.” Fishermen’s Energy – The Future of Energy in New Jersey. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 July 2012. <http://www.fishermensenergy.com/faq.html>.

Gerdes, Gerhard et al. “Case Study: European Offshore Wind Farms- A Survey for the Analysis of the Experiences and Lessons Learnt by Developers of Offshore Wind Farms.” <http://www.offshore-wind.de/page/fileadmin/offshore/documents/Case_Study_European_Offshore_Wind_Farms.pdf>.  18 Jul 2011.

Gerdes, Gerhard et al. “OFFSHORE WIND IMPLEMENTING A NEW POWERHOUSE FOR EUROPE GRID CONNECTION, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT & POLITICAL FRAMEWORK.” <http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/offshore-wind-implementing-a.pdf>. Greenpeace. 18 Jul 2011.

“Global Investments in Green Energy Up Nearly a Third to US$211 billion.” UN.  <http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=2647&ArticleID=8805&l=en&t=long>. 18 Jul 2011.

Johnson, Scott. “Why ocean mud might matter to your future iPhone.” <http://arstechnica.com/science/news/2011/07/ocean-sediment-promising-source-of-rare-earth-metals.ars>. Conde Nast. 18 Jul 2011.

McMillan, James D.  “Advanced Biofuels Developments in the USA.” <http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/51129.pdf>. NREL. 18 Jul 2011.

“Mineral Extraction.” <http://www.nrel.gov/otec/mineral_extraction.html>. NREL. 18 Jul 2011.

Paerl, Hans W. et al. “Water Quality Gradients across Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System: Seasonal Variations and Model Application.” Journal of Coastal Research 23.1 (2007): 213-229. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Jul 2011.

Pool, Rebecca. “Scaling new heights.” Power Engineer 19.5 (2005): 20-23. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Jul 2011.

Shaw, S. “E N A B L I N G  O F F S H O R E  W I N D  D E V E L O P M E N T S.” <http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/publications/reports/offshore_-_EWEA_version_.pdf>. European Wind Energy Association. 18 Jul 2011.

Timmer, John. “Why New Jersey is #2 in solar power (and why this isn’t good).” <http://arstechnica.com/science/news/2011/07/why-new-jersey-is-2-in-solar-power-and-why-this-isnt-good.ars>. Conde Nast. 18 Jul 2011.

Timmer, John. “Renewable energy tops nuclear power in the US.” <http://arstechnica.com/science/news/2011/07/renewable-power-booms-in-developing-world-as-it-tops-nuclear-in-the-us.ars>. Conde Nast. 18 Jul 2011.

Treacy, Megan. “Atlantic City Offshore Wind Farm Could Start Construction in the Fall.”Atlantic City Offshore Wind Farm Could Start Construction in the Fall. N.p., 18 Jan. 2012. Web. 23 July 2012. <http://www.ecogeek.org/wind-power/3685-atlantic-city-offshore-wind-farm-could-start-const>.

Economic Cost and Capacity
Robert Johnson

Barrett, John, et al. “An Economic Analysis of a Wind Farm in Nantucket Sound.” The Beacon Hill Institute. Suffolk University. May 2004. Web. 20 Jul 2011.

“Calculating the Savings.” Cape Wind Associates, LLC. Copyright. 2010. Web 20 Jul 2011.

“Coastal Wind: Energy for North Carolina’s Future.” The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Jun 2009. Web. 20 Jul 2011 Pdf.

“Press Release.” Cape Wind Associates, LLC. Mar 2010. Web. 20 Jul 2011.

“Program on Technology Innovation: Integrated Generation Technology Options.” Electric Power Research Institute. Jun 2011. Web. 17 Jul 2011. Pdf.

“Renewable Energy Production and Consumption by Source.” Electric Power Research Institute. Jun 2011. Web. 17 Jul 2011. Pdf.

Environmental Impacts of Inshore and Offshore Wind Installations
Alexandra Lorentz and Davis Plunkett

Allison, Taber. “Avian issues for-offshore wind development.” MARINE TECHNOLOGYSOCIETY JOURNAL. 42.2 (2008).

Andersson, Mathias H. “Epibenthic colonization of concrete and steel pilings in a cold-temperate embayment: a field experiment.” HELGOLAND MARINE RESEARCH 63.3 (2009): 249-60. Web. 18 Jul 2011.

Andrew H. Fayram, Arturo de Risi, The potential compatibility of offshore wind power and fisheries: An example using bluefin tuna in the Adriatic Sea, Ocean & Coastal Management 50.8 (2007): 597-605. Web. 17 Jul 2011.

Atilla, N. “Abundance and colonization potential of artificial hard substrate-associated meiofauna.” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY 287.2 (2003): 273-87. Web. 18 Jul 2011.

Azevedo, FBB. “Colonization of benthic organisms on different artificial substratum in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.” BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY 49.2 (2006): 263-75. Web. 18 Jul 2011

Bailey, Helen. “Assessing Underwater Noise levels during pile-driving and its effect on marine animals” Marine Pollution Bulletin 60.6 (2010): 888-897 Web. 11 Jul 2011.

Bickel, Samantha, Joseph D. Malloy Hammond, and Kam W. Tang. Boat generated turbulence as a potential source of mortality among copepods, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 401.1-2 (31 May 2011): 105-109. Web. 17 Jul 2011.

Bulleri , Fabio. (2006). The colonisation of human-made structures by the invasive alga codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in the north adriatic sea (ne mediterranean). Hydrobiologia555(1). Web. 20 Jul 2011.

“Conserving the Nature of North America.” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. n.p., 20 Jul 2011. Web. 20 Jul 2011. <http://www.fws.gov/>.

Desholm, M. “Avian collision risk at an offshore wind farm.” Biology Letters 1.3 (2005): 296-98. Web. 11 Jul 2011.

Lewis, LJ. “A study of the impact of a pipeline construction on estuarine benthic invertebrate communities.” ESTUARINE COASTAL AND SHELF SCIENCE 55.2 (2002): 213-21. Web. 21 Jul 2011.

Maar, Marie, Karsten Bolding, Jens Kjerulf Petersen, Jorgen L.S. Hansen, and Karen Timmermann. Local effects of blue mussels around turbine in an ecosystem model of Nysted off-shore wind farm, Denmark, Journal of Sea Research. Metabolic organization: 30 years of DEB applications and developments 62.2-3 (Aug-Oct 2009): 159-174. 11 Jul 2011.

Öhman, Marcus. “Offshore Windmills and the Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish.” Journal of the Human Environment 36.8 (2007): 630-35. Web. 17 Jul 2011.

Sale, Alessandro. “Migration Challenges in the oceanic migration of leatherback sea turtles.” Proceedings of the Royal Society (2009): 3737-45. Web. 19 Jul 2011.

Tougaard, Jakob. “Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: Estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.” JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 125.6 (2009).

The Future of Offshore Wind Energy: Bigger is Better

UpWindEuropean Wind Energy Association. European Union, Mar. 2011. Web. 21 July 2012. <http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/upwind/21895_UpWind_Report_low_web.pdf>.

Webb, Chriss. “Wind Turbine Blades Push Size Limits.” Renewable Energy World. N.p., 10 July 2012. Web. 21 July 2012. <http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2012/07/wind-turbine-blades-push-size-limits>.


Strategies to Reduce Negative Environmental Effects

Elmer, Karl-Heinz. Pile Driving Noise Reduction Using New Hydro Sound Dampers. 21 Mar. 2010. Workshop. http://www.bsh.de/de/Das_BSH/Veranstaltungen/Cetacean_Society/Elmer.pdf.

Kuhl, Jackson. “Bubble Curtains: Can They Dampen Offshore Energy Sound for Whales?” National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 07 Feb. 2012. Web. 21 July 2012. <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2012/02/120207-bubble-curtains-to-protect-whales/>.

Lucke, Klause, Paul Lepper, Marie-Anne Blanchet, and Ursula Siebert. “The Use of an Air Bubble Curtain to Reduce the Received Sound Levels for Harbor Porpoises.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 130.5 2011


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