May 24 2011

Electromagnetic Fields Stressors Source Page

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A. Gill, Y. Huang, I. Gloyne-Philips, J. Metcalfe, V. Quayle, J. Spencer, V. Wearmouth, COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Phase 2; EMFsensitive fish response to EM emissions from  sub-sea electricity cables of the type used by offshore renewable energy industry, Commissioned by COWRIE Led, COWRIE-EMF-1-06, 2009.

Fields, Douglas R. “The Shark’s Electric Sense.” Scientific American (2007): 75-81.

Gill, A.B., Huang, Y., Gloyne-Philips, I., Metcalfe, J., Quayle, V., Spencer, J. & Wearmouth, V. (2009). COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Phase 2: EMF-sensitive fish response to EM emissions from sub-sea electricity cables
of the type used by the offshore renewable energy industry. Commissioned by COWRIE Ltd (project reference COWRIE-EMF-1-06).

Gill, Andrew B., and Helen Taylor. “The Potential Effects of EM Fields Generated by Cabling between Offshore Wind Turbines upon Elasmobranchs.” Offshore Wind Energy. University of Liverpool, Sept. 2011. Web. 17 May 2011. <>.

Hoffman, E., Astrup, J., Larsen, F. & Munch-Petersen, S.  “Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area.”  ELSAMPROJEKT A/S. Baggrundsrapport 24. Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, Lyngby, Denmark. May 2000. Web. 23 May 2011.

Howell, D. “A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources.” Subascoutech (2004).

“Loud Noise Can Injure Fish Hearing.” Science Daily: News & Articles in Science, Health, Environment & Technology. Science Daily, 10 Feb. 2003. Web. 20 May 2011. <>.

Mueller, Robert P., Duane A. Neitzel, William V. Mavros, 1998, Evaluation of Low and High Frequency Sound for Enhancing Fish Screening Facilities, to Protect Outmigrating Salmonids, (DOE/BP-62611-13) to Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR, Contract No. DE-AI79-86BP62611, Project No. 86-118, 38 p. (BPA Report DOE/BP-62611-13)

NaiKun Wind Development Inc. “Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF).” Marine Aquatic Ecology (2009): 1-37. NaiKun Offshore Wind Energy Project, 4 Sept. 2009. Web. 20 May 2011.

Öhman, Marcus C., Peter Sigray, and Håkan Westerberg. “Offshore Windmills and the Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish.” AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 36.8 (2007): 630-33.

Popper, Arthur N. “Noise-induced Stress Response and Hearing Loss in Goldfish (Carassius Auratus).” Journal of Experimental Biology 207.3 (2004): 427-35.

Robbins, W. D. “Assessment of Permanent Magnets and Electropositive Metals to Reduce the Line-based Capture of Galapagos Sharks, Carcharhinus Galapagensis.” Fisheries Research 109.1 (2011): 100-06.

Rosario, J. Corte, and Encily R. Martin. “Behavioral Changes in Freshwater Crab, Barytelphusa Cunicularis after Exposure to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.” World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 2.6 (2010): 488-92. Print.

Sale, Alessandro, and Paolo Luschi. “Navigational Challenges in the Oceanic Migrations of Leatherback Sea Turtles.” Proceedings of The Royal Society. The Royal Society, 22 July 2009. Web. 4 May 2011. <>.

S.D. Cain, L.C. Boles, J.H. Wang, and K.J. Lohman, “Magnetic orientation and navigation in marine turtles, lobsters, and mollusks: concepts and conundrums,” Integr. Comp. Biol., 45, pp. 539-546, 2005.

Tanski, A. “Effects of Magnetic Fields on Fyke Net Performance.” Journal of Applied Ichthyology 20.5 (204): 402-06.

URS Corporation. “Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Trans Bay Cable Project.” City of Pittsburgh, May 2006. Web. 22 May 2011. <>.

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  1. Energy and the Environment-A Coastal Perspective - Operation

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